Finney, S.A. (1997). Auditory feedback and musical keyboard
Music Perception, 15, 153-174.
In an investigation into the role of auditory feedback guidance in musical performance, musically experienced subjects performed on an electronic keyboard under altered feedback conditions which included pitch and timing manipulations, as well as absence of auditory feedback. The results largely replicated the data reported by Gates and Bradshaw (1974): performance in the absence of auditory feedback showed no impairment, whereas performance under delayed auditory feedback (DAF) showed significant impairment. In an extension to the Gates and Bradshaw study, however, it was found that altered pitch feedback caused little or no impairment, and that altering the pitches in the DAF condition significantly reduced the amount of DAF impairment. These results show that different components of auditory feedback (pitch and timing) have separable effects on musical performance, and pose a problem for theories of auditory feedback effects which do not explicitly distinguish these components.